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2010年6月26日 星期六

[漢字解析] "冴"到底要唸什麼音? 它是"和製漢字"嗎?!

 因為羽球共和國的版友恰巧提到日本羽球選手"佐藤冴香(Sato Sayaka)", 他提到"冴"這個字可以用微軟新注音"ㄏㄨˋ"輸入. 引起我的好奇心, 以往都是"有邊讀邊, 沒間讀中間"的不求甚解, 這一次要好好地把它給搞清楚.

 之前我還不知道"冴"這個字的華語讀音, 只知道它的日語發音大概是Sae, 因為日本卡通"City Hunter(城市獵人)的主角冴羽 獠的日語發音是Saeba Ryo, 其中的性感女警官叫冴子(Saeko).

 而台北公開賽及大陸電視台都是把佐藤冴香的名字, 標為或唸成"佐藤沙香".

 我先是利用手邊的日本三省堂岩波書店國語辭典》, 台灣授權翻印的角川 漢和新辭典》及台灣東方出版社國語辭典》來查詢。根據日本《角川 漢和新辭典》的解釋, ""是""的誤字, 而根據《東方 國語辭典》""同"", 注音為"ㄏㄨˋ", 為凍結之意, <沍寒>指寒凍不解.

 但是有版友指正, "冴"在日語裡大概有兩種意義, 當清朗時, 發音類SAERU, 當寒凍時, 發音類ITSU. 而且認為 "冴"原本就是"和製漢字", 沒有正確的漢語發音.

 這個質疑讓我覺得要再進一步仔細地查證, 免得引人入歧.

 不過我記得"冴"這個字不是日本原創的漢字, 因為在漢和辭典》或日本的《國語辭典》會用"囯字""和製漢字"來標明, 如"",""等, 但是"冴"在這兩種辭典等都沒有這樣的標示.

 於是我再搬出重達好幾公斤的《漢語大字典》來翻查, 才得到真正的答案, 原來日本《角川 漢和新辭典》的編輯者真是用功啊!!

 原來與"",""相同意義的的漢字原型是""右邊"牙"下面這一斜撇反向為捺, 斜切過直鉤, 而日本人把它改成一般習慣寫的"牙", 所以《角川 漢和新辭典》才會說, "冴"是"冱"的誤字.

 當然漢字傳到日本之後, 在音, 義上面都會有變化, 這是語言演變的自然過程. 至於我舉《城市獵人》只是一例而已, 無法完整說明, 若有誤導還請見諒. 如果要仔細說明日本漢字的發音, 可能要就教方家.

 以下是摘自日本NTT旗下的GOO網站國語辭典的內容, 雖然在日語裡"冴,冱"已經衍生多義, 但是凍結, 嚴寒之意還是依然存在.

さえる 【冴える/冱える】

  • (動ア下一)[文]ヤ下二 さ・ゆ

  • 補足説明「さやか」の「さや」と同源
    • (1)月や星が寒い夜空にくっきりと見える。
      • 「—・えた月の光」
    • (2)楽器の澄んだ音色がはっきり聞こえる。
      • 「笛の—・えた音色」
    • (3)色がくっきり鮮やかに感じられる。また、顔色や表情が生き生きとする。
      • 「—・えた青」
      • 「近頃顔色が—・えない」
    • (4)意識がはっきりする。
      • (ア)頭脳のはたらきが明晰(めいせき)である。
        • 「朝のうちは頭が—・えている」
        • 「—・えた頭脳の持ち主」
      • (イ)(「目がさえる」の形で)(興奮して)眠気がなくなる。
        • 「目が—・えてなかなか眠れない」
    • (5)腕前や技術が際立って鮮やかである。
      • 「—・えた撥(ばち)さばき」
    • (6)にぎやかに盛り上がる。
      • 「紙屋仲間の御参会—・えるの—・えるの/浄瑠璃・紙屋治兵衛」
    • (7)寒さが厳しくなる。冷える。
      • 「春わかず—・ゆる河辺の葦の芽は/宇津保(春日詣)」

 至於日本姓名漢字的唸法更是千奇百怪, 同樣的漢字不同的唸法可多了!! 甚至日本歌詞有的還用漢字, 但是標英語唸法. 例如姓氏"小鳥遊", 竟然讀為Takanashi(鷹無し), 因為它是取其義, 因為沒有老鷹, 小鳥才能遨遊. 這只是一例而已, 從日本綜藝電視節目上看到的.

 以上所做只是想為自己解惑, 順便把結果與大家分享而已, 絕非自炫.

4 則留言:

  1. 麥經理真是個讀書人~~~~

    小弟深感佩服~~~

    回覆刪除
  2. 原來一直以來唸錯蠟筆小新他媽媽 野原美冴(野原みさえ)的名字了

    回覆刪除
  3. 參考https://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E5%86%B4

    回覆刪除

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