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2018年2月22日 星期四

[讀書偶得]李文禮與孔融的對話:「君與僕有何親?」

 在今年農曆春節期間, 剛好看到日本綜藝節目《男女糾察隊整人 3 小時》裡的奇蹟美照單元, 裡面工作人員向空中撒鹽來模擬雪花飛濺的效果, 讓我想起中學國文課《世說新語》選集"詠絮之才篇", 讓我想重新翻閱《世說新語》, 結果就有以下兩篇文章, 第一篇是有關孔融, 孔融是孔子的二十世孫, 我們小時候都看過"孔融讓梨"的故事, 他小時候曾隨父親到洛陽, 以聰辯言語獲得當時名士李元禮的讚許, 也出現"小時了了, 大未必佳"的成語, 孔融被曹操收捕之後, 孔融之子也說出"覆巢之下無完卵的名言。

(德行 4) 李元禮風格秀整, 高自標持, 欲以天下名教是非為己任. 後進之士, 有升堂者, 皆以為登龍門。

(德行 5) 李元禮嘗歎荀淑, 鍾皓曰, 「荀君清識難尚, 鍾君至德可師」。

(言語 2) 孔文舉(融)年十歲, 隨父到洛. 時李元禮有盛名, 為司隸校尉, 詣門者皆雋才清稱, 及中表親戚乃通. 文舉至門, 謂吏曰:「我是李府君親。」既通, 前坐。元禮問曰:「君與僕有何親?」對曰:「昔先君仲尼,與君先人伯陽,有師資之尊;是僕與君奕世為通好也。」元禮及賓客莫不奇之。太中大夫陳韙後至,人以其語語之。韙曰:「小時了了,大未必佳!」文舉曰:「想君小時,必當了了!」韙大踧踖。

(言語 5) 孔融被收, 中外惶怖。時融兒大者九歲, 小者八歲. 二兒故琢釘戲, 了無遽(懼)容。融謂使者曰:「冀罪止於身,二兒可得全不?」兒徐進曰:「大人豈見覆巢之下,復有完卵乎?」尋亦收至。


 那李元禮是誰呢?  李元禮是東漢太尉李修之孫, 趙國相李益之子, 他因舉孝廉, 任青州刺史, 他任事清明, 他尊荀子11世孫--荀淑為師, 敬重九召不任的鍾皓為友.

 日文謙稱己為僕(ぼく)  , 尊稱彼為君(きみ), 其實是沿用中國古代語文的用法, 李文禮問孔文舉"君與僕有何親?"

 中國共產黨中央紀律檢查委員會與中國監察部轄下的官方報紙--《中國紀檢監察報》在2017年10月刊出一篇由國瑞巡署名(應該是筆名)撰寫的《天下楷模李元禮》, 它文章的目的就是要宣揚中共中紀委全國巡視打貪的必要性及歷史性, 不過捨去其政治宣傳性, 也算是一篇不錯的文章, 而中共的中央中紀委也就是中國歷史中的御史制度而已。

中國紀檢監察報 2017年4月10日第 8 版 由國瑞巡所寫的一篇《天下楷模李元禮》

 李膺,字元禮,是潁川襄城人,也就是現在的河南省襄城縣人。他生性正直清白,世人評他「謖謖如勁松下風」,他的傑出人品和學識,被太學生標榜為「八俊」之一,所謂八俊,即當時士人心目中八位精神領袖。李膺為官期間,特別是他擔任校尉期間,與陳蕃、杜密等人一起主張整頓吏治,糾劾奸佞,成為當時風向標式的人物,人稱「天下楷模李元禮」。

 李膺不喜歡交際,更不喜歡迎來送往,所以他與一般人沒有交接來往,與他有交情的是同郡荀淑、陳寔等人,荀淑是他的師長(荀淑是荀子的11世孫),陳寔則是他認同的朋友。據說李膺總是以有病為藉口,從來不迎送賓客。唯有陳寔來,他才出門迎接。陳寔的大兒子元方來見李膺,李膺與他說完話,讓他到廚房中灶去吃飯,元方竊喜,因為自己的表現能中李膺之意。荀淑的兒子荀爽當時已經很有名了,他去請見李膺,而且還為李膺駕了車,回到家裡,十分榮耀地告訴家人:「我今天不僅見到了李膺君,而且還為李君當馭手(司機)了!」

 當此之時,李膺名望非常高,士人一經他賞識,便能得世人認可。南陽樊陵請求李膺收他為門徒,被李膺婉言謝絕,後來這個人阿附宦官,賣身求榮,官到太尉,被清正的人們所不齒。同縣人聶季寶,出身寒門,李膺的朋友杜密認為這是一個人才,但不能確定到底能擔當多大的任用,請李膺幫忙看看。李膺接見聶季寶,在門前台階上鋪了塊為牛禦寒的蓑衣,倆人就坐在上面,相談甚洽,並且斷定「此人當作國士」。聶季寶後來的確有一番作為,所以《太平廣記》說「卒如其言」。

 李膺做司隸校尉時,仍是不喜交際,一般人都閉門不納,只有俊才和清譽的人,或者是家中親戚,才能通報入門。孔子的後裔孔融,時年十歲,隨父親去拜見李膺。孔融對門人說,自己是李膺的親戚,門人放他入內。及見到李膺,李膺並不認識這個親戚,因而問他:「先生與在下是什麼親戚呀?」孔融應聲即答:「以前我的先祖仲尼(孔子)與您的先祖伯陽(老子),曾有師生之尊親,您我都是兩位先祖的後人,所以在下與君是奕世通好呀。」李膺與在場的朋友都以孔融為奇才。

 李膺通過察舉制度進入仕途,升遷至青州刺史,巡視青州,青州的守令官員皆畏李膺的威明,「多望風棄官」。後又做護烏桓校尉、度遼將軍,自李膺駐守邊關,鮮卑莫敢入犯,「皆望風懼服,先所掠男女悉送還塞下」。由此看來,李膺不僅有思想、有文才,還是一個軍事家。到漢桓帝延熹二年(159年),李膺又受徵調,擔任河南尹。在河南尹任上,李膺處理了一件大案。當時宛陵縣大姓羊元群從北海郡罷官回鄉,在任時貪污納賄,聲名狼藉,仍貪婪不止,以至於回鄉時,將郡舍里的新奇擺件,他都搬到車上,載回宛陵。但他沒想到,李膺是個清廉的人,斷容不得他這種貪得無厭之徒,立即向朝廷上表奏報了羊氏的罪行。

 李膺在司隸校尉任上也做得轟轟烈烈。時宦官小黃門張讓的弟弟張朔擔任野王縣令,殘暴貪婪沒有仁道,民憤極大。張朔害怕李膺的威嚴,畏罪逃回京城。躲到哥哥張讓家中,藏在屋內空心柱里。李膺知道了他的情況,率領吏卒砸開柱子,抓捕張朔,交給洛陽縣法庭。錄下口供之後,立即依法處置。張讓向桓帝哭訴,狀告李膺。桓帝召李膺問明情況後對張讓說:「這是你弟的罪過,司隸哪有過錯呢?」自此以後,各位黃門常侍皆鞠躬屏氣,小心謹慎,休假時也不敢走出宮廷。桓帝感到奇怪,問他們原因,他們全都叩頭流淚說:「害怕李校尉。」

 當時河南有個善於看風向以占卜的人張成,與宦官頗有交通。張成可能從宦官那裡得來消息,知道朝廷將下大赦令,於是他假裝根據風向推算,說不久會有大赦,趁機教唆兒子報復殺人。司隸校尉李膺督促部下將其子抓捕,不久真的大赦令下來了,但李膺查明實相後,仍下令按原判將之處死,不為權勢和利誘所動。

 李膺死後,其英名激勵當時的仁人志士,他們以與李膺相關而自豪。由此可以見人心的向背,堅持正義的人始終活在人們心裡。

 原文連結在此: http://csr.mos.gov.cn/content/1/2017-04/10/8/201704108_pdf.pdf

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