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2013年5月8日 星期三

[雜記]世界球王喬科維奇與中國"五四"運動的關係

 現今網球界男子單打的球王喬科維奇(Novak Djorkvic)與民國 8 年發生在北京的"五四運動"會有什麼關係呢?


 原來喬科維奇是出生在前南斯拉夫首都貝爾格勒的塞爾維亞人, 而塞爾維亞正是引爆第一次世界大戰的導火線, 愛國的塞爾維亞大學生在波斯尼亞首都塞拉耶佛刺殺奧匈帝國王儲裴迪南夫婦.

 塞爾維亞在19世紀末獲曾得俄國的協助, 建立獨立的塞爾維亞王國, 但是因為巴爾幹半島上各種族之間的衝突--由於巴爾幹半島上的保加利亞受到當時鄰近強國土耳其的屠殺, 而同為斯拉夫族的俄國看不下去而進軍巴爾幹半島, 而英國為了保護自己的貿易利益協助土耳其, 使得各方最後在1877年的柏林會議開會決定巴爾幹半島問題, 讓波斯尼斯, 塞爾維亞等國劃入奧匈帝國的勢力範圍, 而終究引發奧匈帝國王儲被刺事件, 而當時德國, 奧匈帝國及保加利亞結盟為同盟國, 英, 法, 俄等結盟為協約國.

 歐陸因為這一事件爆發戰爭, 其實跟中國一起關係也沒有, 但是當時的北洋政府認為這是個爭取與歐洲列強平起平坐的好機會, 於是向當時佔據膠州灣的德國宣戰, 同時也派遺一支部隊赴歐參戰, 最後同盟國戰敗, 使得中國也成為戰勝國, 同時派出代表參加巴黎和會, 不過歐洲列強為了拉攏當時的亞洲強權日本, 把德國在膠州灣的權利移轉給日本, 中華民國的代表拒絕在巴黎和約簽字, 當時在北京的大學生聽到中國明明為戰勝國, 但北洋政府代表卻無法據理力爭, 於是把怒氣發在這些代表身上, 喊出"「外爭國權, 內除國賊」口號, 同時提出德先生(緣自民主英語發音), 賽先生(緣自科學英文發音)的五四運動, 同時也讓中國共產黨有了極佳的發展契機。

 不過塞爾維亞在戰後卻仍無法獲得獨立, 在1929年, 與波斯尼亞, 克羅埃西亞, 斯洛文尼亞, 黑山, 馬其頓等合併為南斯拉夫, 直到柏林圍牆倒塌, 蘇聯解體, 南斯拉夫才陸續解體, 塞爾維亞直到2006年才跟黑山分道揚鑣, 成為完全獨立的國家, 但是境內以阿爾巴尼亞人為主的科索沃也尋求獨立, 跟塞爾維亞發生戰爭, 科索沃在2008年宣布獨立, 但是塞爾維亞並不承認。

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