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2012年1月30日 星期一

[轉載]世界冠軍王琳教你如何避免在羽球運動中受傷

中國《錢江晚報》在去年12月27日體育松鼠會--"我們像松鼠一樣,把體育科學堅果外層的硬殼剝掉,讓大家品嘗味美的果肉"--版面刊出由浙江大學教師許亞萍訪問王琳, 為讀者解說哪些動作及心態是打羽球最容易受傷的原因。

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 羽毛球如今可能是城市裏最火的大眾體育運動項目,不過,這項充滿魅力的運動的另一方面也意味著容易受傷。王琳就深受傷病困擾。去年9月,這位杭州姑娘在比賽中左膝受傷的鏡頭牽動了很多球迷的心。此後經歷了手術、康復,最終王琳又重新站上了賽場。

 打了11年羽毛球,王琳在回答球迷提出的一些有關運動損傷的問題當然得心應手,但作為追求極限的專業球員,有時仍避免不了在對抗中受傷。大多數人希望球員總是贏,還希望他們要贏得漂亮,贏了還要擺酷,卻忽視了他們同樣在承受體育運動殘酷的另一面。

 王琳目前正在北京的國家隊集訓,恢復得不錯,雖然倫敦奧運會將近,隊內競爭空前激烈,她依然心態良好。
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 主持本次松鼠會的是許亞萍, 她的經歷如下:

國際運動健將,皮划艇世界冠軍,ACSM美國運動醫學INSIGHT高級健康師,體育教育運動訓練學碩士,目前任職於浙江大學。擅長康復、養生、運動、健身、運動營養, 運動心理學。

 為大家解說的嘉賓是王琳, 現役杭州籍羽毛球國手,2009年全運會女單冠軍,2010年世錦賽女單冠軍)

支招一:鞋要抓地,拍子要稱手


 許亞萍(以下簡稱許):據說拍子選擇不當,也可能導致受傷,有這麼誇張嗎?

 王琳(以下簡稱王):一副合適自己的羽毛球拍,的確可以減小受傷的機率。很多人認為球拍穿線磅數高,擊球就有力,其實磅數並不是越高越好。磅數高,球震動的頻率就高,對手腕的作用力也就越大,也就容易受傷;另外球拍的握把太大或太小,都對發力有影響。合適的大小應該是,正手握拍時無名指和大魚肌 (大拇指根部肌肉)之間有約一個5-8mm的空隙。

 :有球友問看比賽時發現好多專業運動員都戴腰帶比賽,是不是他們腰都不好?業餘選手平時戴這個有好處嗎?

 :戴腰帶是因為很多運動員在長期訓練中都有腰傷,腰帶可以起到保護的作用,業餘選手如果沒有腰傷,就沒有必要。

 :專業羽毛球鞋的保護作用體現在哪裡?

 :專業羽毛球鞋的鞋底用特殊膠底製成,能起到很好的防滑作用。打羽毛球需要急停急轉,最好選一雙設計輕巧、平跟、便於發力的鞋。鞋底最好牛筋質地的,紋路交錯細密,摩擦力大,抓地性好。如果是新鞋,鞋號要稍大一點,這樣向前跨步時不會頂腳。

支招二:頭號敵人就是錯誤的動作

 :有球友問,打了七八年業餘球,水準不咋地,卻老受傷,昨天接一個簡單的反手半高球,又把右腳踝別著了。請問為什麼會老受傷?

 業餘選手受傷一般的頭號敵人就是動作錯誤,造成發力不對;另外還有自身力量不夠,運動強度過大後就容易受傷;準備活動不充分,還沒熱身就開打。

 許:這位球友覺得自己的問題主要來自上肢,轉手腕的時候感覺裏面有小小的“咯到”的感覺,有時候發力殺球時肩關節又開始疼,問題出在哪里?

 :首先可能是動作不對,而發力又過猛才會造成這樣的傷病。建議找專業的教練糾正動作。另外,手腕和肩關節的確是羽毛球最容易受傷的部位,運動前的熱身活動一定要充分。

支招三:改一改好勝和耍酷的心態

 :有位打羽毛球20多年的大叔級發燒友,說年輕人技術比不上他,所以喜歡跟他磨體力,請王琳給他支支招。

 :我個人認為,上一定年紀的人打球,還是要根據自己的情況量力而行,不宜過於爭強好勝。因為體力不支會導致動作變形,這時就很容易受傷了。我給的建議是:快刀斬亂麻,一盤定勝負。

 :林丹比賽中魚躍救球的樣子很酷,不光羡慕也好想學,業餘選手能學會魚躍救球嗎?

 :一般業餘選手很難學會魚躍,因為它對運動員的身體素質要求很高,需要很好的腰腹和手臂力量以及協調性,一般很難學會,女孩基本沒法完成。為避免受傷,不建議盲目做這個動作。

 :有位球友說自己腰椎間盤有點膨出,但因為打球需要頻繁地後仰和前伏,有時甚至追求極限,這種身體狀況還適合繼續打羽毛球嗎?

 :腰傷很常見,急性期需要及時治療和靜養。但如果不是嚴重到影響日常生活,過了急性期後還是要加強腰背肌力量訓練。訓練方法很簡單:找兩張椅 子,面對面放,分別把腳和肩放在兩張椅子上,腰懸空,儘量堅持。另外如果膝蓋受傷,使不上力,那腰就得特別用力,所以保護好膝蓋也很重要。能不能繼續運 動,最好還是聽從醫生的建議。

支招四:學一點科學的訓練方法

 :學生朋友說只能在水泥球場打球,打久了膝蓋有輕微疼痛感覺,不知道跟場地太硬有沒有關係?膝蓋疼該怎麼進行功能性的鍛煉?

 :地板太硬確實容易對膝蓋造成傷害,想加強膝蓋力量可以練習夾球靠牆蹲,目的是加強股內側肌的力量,它對髕骨及膝關節的穩定性有益。動作要領:臀部、背部、頭後側靠牆,膝關節彎曲至90度,即大腿與地面水平。腳向前一步,重心保持在兩腿之間。兩腳與肩同寬,腳尖向前。膝關節之間夾一個軟球,保持球始終受兩腿的擠壓。下蹲時間越長越好,一般從1-2分鐘開始,練習一段時間可以增至3-5分鐘。

 :有的愛好者迫切想提高自己的水準,感覺爆發力偏弱,但據說用專業運動員的方法練容易出傷病,能不能請王琳介紹一點適合業餘選手迅速提高爆發力,又不會受傷的辦法?

 :力量可以分為肌力、爆發力、肌耐力。羽毛球運動員不僅要有較好的肌力和肌耐力,同時還要有非常優秀的快速力量即“爆發力”。只有三個方面合理發展,才能提高動作的協調性、下肢靈活性,大幅提升步法移動的到位率。我們一般都是在健身房練力量,小重量,多次數,加強爆發力。更簡單的,可以買個實心球,對牆揮拍的動作扔球,注意選擇適合的重量。


哪些動作要特別當心

頻頻殺球:警惕肩關節受傷

 打羽毛球常見的肩部損傷包括盂唇軟骨撕裂關節囊增厚等。盂唇撕裂有個典型症狀,就是不動不痛,抬肩就會痛。有些白領平時坐著不動,關節受了傷都不知道,到週末再去打球,一抬肩痛得厲害,才醒悟到自己受了傷。

抽球太猛:當心“高爾夫肘”

 “網球肘”是手肘外側受傷,患者多喜歡反手擊球,而“高爾夫肘”正相反,是手肘內側受傷,患者多喜歡正手抽球。

反覆揮拍:引發“肩部撞擊症”

 羽毛球引拍、揮拍時,肩關節外展,這時肩峰下關節內部組織可因反覆摩擦、撞擊而產生一種慢性肩部疼痛綜合症,叫做“肩部撞擊症”。主要症狀為疼痛部位以肩峰周圍為主,夜間較重。

飛奔“救球”:髖關節易受傷

 眼見球落下的位置離自己還有好大一截,有的人情急之下會抬腿猛跨,恨不得一步到位,此時股骨頭和髖臼之間會猛烈撞擊,容易發生“頭臼撞擊綜合征”。這種傷害如果不及時修復,慢慢累積會造成關節內部的大問題。

打反手球:軟骨易撕裂

 羽毛球要求手腕有很多後伸、外展、快伸、內收、內旋等動作,腕部的薄弱環節三角軟骨盤會不斷受到旋轉輾擠,特別容易造成損傷。如果向內旋轉自己的手腕,一扭就覺得疼痛,有時還伴隨哢哢作響,這就是腕關節三角軟骨撕裂的症狀。

 新聞網址: http://zjdaily.zjol.com.cn/qjwb/html/2011-12/27/node_124.htm

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